南京大虐殺 南京安全避難区の外国人

The Japanese killed many Chinese people? I don’t think so. John Rabe sent a letter of appreciation to the commander of Japanese army on Dec. 14 1937. This is the letter.
「Dear Sirs. We express our appreciation to your artillery’s praiseworthy act of having not attacked the safety zone and for becoming able to communicate with you (commander Matsui) about the future plan for supporting Chinese citizens in the same area. 」 (Stenography No.210).


■(Part1)Before the battle of Nanking, the commander General Iwane Matsui ordered the Japanese army to be very careful not to kill any civilians. During the battle, every civilian took refuge in the Nanking Safety Zone. Japanese army did not attack it, and there were no civilian victims, except for several who were accidentally killed or injured by stray shells. John Rabe, later handed a letter of thanks for this to the commander of the Japanese army.


(Part2)December 14, 1937 Dear commander of the Japanese army in Nanking, We appreciate that the artillerymen of your army did not attack the Safety Zone. We hope to contact you to make a plan to protect the general Chinese citizens who are staying in the Safety Zone….We will be pleased to cooperate with you in any way to protect the general citizens in this city.
--Chairman of the Nanking International Committee, John H. D. Rabe--"

(Part3)If the Japanese military wanted to massacre every Nanking citizen, it would have been very easily done if they only bombarded the Nanking Safety Zone. The Japanese military did not attack it, but rather protected all the people of the Zone. In the mind of General Matsui, the purpose of the war was not to take the land, but to save Chinese civilians from the Chinese civil war, killing among the Chinese themselves.


(Part4)Japan wanted to establish in China a strong Chinese government not of communists, not of Western powers, but of the Chinese people who were willing to build in cooperation with Japan the great Asia not invaded by communists or exploited by Westerners.


■(Part1)There was the International Committee for Nanking Safety Zone. This committee consisted of 22 Westerners. This committee wrote reports regarding the security situation of Nanking city 61 times from Dec.13, 1937 to Feb.9, 1938 and sent the same reports to Japanese Embassy, Embassy of the United States, British Embassy and Germany Embassy. According to these 61 reports, they reported murder: 41, mayhem: 44, rape: 361, taking: 390, plunder and others: 170 for 2 months.

(Part2)However, all of these reports were “hearsay”. In other words, nobody of this committee witnessed them actually. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (Tokyo Trial: 1946-1948) summoned 4 members of this committee included Magee, Ashmore Fitch, Bates and Wilson. They testified they did not witness any murder and heard from someone. This trial proved nobody witnessed murders actually and they wrote reports on the basis of”Hearsay”.


■(Part1)John Rabe was a member of international Safety Zone Committee in Nanking. Many Chinese people said he was a witness of the Nanking Massacre with confidence. However, he had never witnessed even one case of murder. In spite of that, he sent many reports to Hitler and wrote the stories to his diary. In fact, his diary and reports to Germany were written different number of victims. Why?

(Part2)For Fear of counter objections, he reported to the Japanese authorities in Nanking city the number of casualties to be 49 based on some extent of reliable information. But on the other hand, to journalists, German diplomats and A. Hitler who were all absent in Nanking, he reported figures with an enormous difference, as if no less than tens of thousands civilians had been killed by Japanese troops. Why did Rabe make a false report of the massacre to Hitler?

(Part3)According to German historian Gerhard Krebs, the reason was based on power politics in his German homeland. “Defeated and depressed in World War I, Germany knew that china was a significant trade partner. Particularly Chiang Kai-shek, who was fighting against the CCP, needed a large number of weapons, while Germany was able to import raw materials that were indispensable for the postwar reconstruction.” The Sino-Japanese War forced Germany to reconsider its foreign policy toward China.

(Part4)The Japanese government repeatedly demanded that Germany stop the export of weapons to Japan's enemy Chiang Kai-shek. As the result, Hitler decided to take advantage of containment against the Soviet Union by promoting strong relationship with Japan. Germany refrained from exporting weapons to the Chiang Kai-shek. (In fact, it was in l940 when Germany reached an agreement with Japan.)There were someone strongly resisted the change of policy taken by Hitler.

(Part5)They were Von Falkenhausen, the head of the military advisory group in China, and Rabe, who represented an interest of Siemens in the Chinese munitions industry as a pro-Chinese group. Rabe exaggerated the Japanese Army’s atrocities and requested Hitler to reconsider the alliance with Japan. Rabe's anti-Japanese reports had been thought suspicious since then.

(Part6)Moreover, P. Scharfienberg, the secretary general of the German Embassy to China, who returned to Nanking city on January 9, tried to investigate the fact about 'Japanese Army's atrocities Rabe reported' by himself, and wrote to the German Embassy at Hankow on February 10: “He [Rabe] is still actively trying to counter the bloody excesses of Japanese looters, which have unfortunately increased of late.

(Part7)To my mind, this should not concern us Germans, particularly since one can clearly see that the Chinese, once left to depend solely on the Japanese, immediately fraternize. And as for all these excesses, one hears only one side of it, after all.”
That report is called untrustworthy story after people defined the fact.


ドイツ人歴史家Gerhard Krebsによると、その理由は彼の本国であるドイツの、政治的権力が裏にあったと説明している。第1次世界大戦による財政困難と疲労にあえいでいたドイツにとって、中国は最高の貿易パートナーであったのだ。蒋介石は中国共産党との戦闘で、大量の兵器をドイツから購入している。そんな状態から一変したこの支那事変は、ドイツ本国の政策転換を迫られていたのである。日本政府は繰り返しドイツに対して、中国に武器を輸出しないよう求めていた。蒋介石軍が日本の戦争相手だったからだ。悩んだ末にヒトラー政権は、中国における巨大な軍需産業の利益よりも、安全保障上ソ連を牽制する必要から日本との関係強化を選び、中国の蒋介石政権への武器輸出を控えた。(事実、1940年にはドイツと日本は同盟を結んだ。)それにひとり強力に反対する人物がジョンラーベだった。

駐華軍事顧問団団長ファルケンハウゼンや、親中派の軍需産業ジーメンスの利益代表であるラーベらは激しく本国の動きに反発した。したがってラーベは大げさに日本軍の蛮行を宣伝し、ヒットラーに本国ドイツと日本との関係を考え直して欲しいあまりに、そのような反日的なレポートを書いていたと、ドイツ人歴史家Gerhard Krebsは言う。


■(Part1)It was clearly proved by their testimonies at the IMTFE that no committee members had witnessed 'illegal murders by Japanese soldiers at all. O. Wilson, who made many testimonies as to atrocities, did admit that all of his testimonies were hearsay. Magee, who lived with Bates and worked for the Safety Zone Committee, testified that he had just eye-witnessed only one case.

(Part2)As a matter of fact, neither Rabe nor other westerners of the Safety Zone Committee members, who might have been able to walk around freely in the city with Nazi Swastika armband on, had ever witnessed illegal murders by Japanese soldiers during six weeks.


■(Part1)According to Rabe's diary, at that time those Chinese in the Safety Zone, were limited to persons who could communicate with Rabe in the Safety Zone. Only those who could speak in either English or German were the Chinese staff that helped work in the Safety Zone Committee and Chinese officers, Colonel Lung and Chow. Rabe was recording about Chinese officers in his diary as follows:

(Part2)"Shortly before eight o'clock Colonels Lung and Chow arrive (Ling has marched off by now) and ask if they can take shelter in my house. I agree. Before Han and I left for home, these two gentlemen deposited 30,000 dollars in the committee's safe." (The Good Man of Nanking, p.64.)Is this a illegal act or not?

8時を過ぎた頃、ランとチョウ大佐はやってきて、私たちの家のシェルターを使わせてくれといた。私が同意した。私とハンが家を出る前、この二人は3万ドル(日本円にして約300万)を避難区に預けていった。(The Good Man of Nanking, 64ページ)さてこれは違法行為なのでは?

1937年12月14日 親愛なる日本軍司令官へ 避難区を攻撃しないでくれたことを深く感謝する。今後のこの避難区にいる中国人達をどのように守っていこうか、是非貴殿とお会いしお話をしたいと思っている。私たちはこの人々を守るために、あなたと協力できる事を本当に嬉しく思う。南京安全避難区ジョンラーベ

南京大虐殺 海外の反応

In the U.K., the Nanking battle became public criticism, too. Referring it, Sir Charles Addis mentioned on Nov 10, 1938, as follows: Between two countries at war there was always a danger that one or other of the combatants would seek to turn public opinion in his favors by resort to a propaganda in which incidents, inseparable alas - from all hostilities, were magnified and distorted for the express purpose of inflaming prejudice and passion and obscuring the real issues of the conflict.


南京大虐殺 人口

■(Part1)Chinese government has claimed Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 Chinese civilians while the Japanese were staying in Nanking city in China. After the Japanese occupation, did the population of Nanking decrease by more than 300,000? Let’s look at many historical records. On Dec 8,1937, Tang Sheng-zhi, who was Chinese commander, warned that all the noncombatants should assemble in the Safety Zone, and the citizens rushed into the Safety Zone for the safety.

(Part2)As the result, there were no people within the castle except in the Safety Zone. John Rabe, the Safety Zone Committee (TSZC) member, wrote in his diary in Dec 10, when the Nanking battle began, the Nanking population was 200,000. TSZC described in the Document No.9 dated in Dec 17, "On the 13th when the Japanese entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population in the Safety Zone, so the number 200,000 is no doubt.

(Part3) For TSZC, it was absolutely necessary to know the accurate number of people in order to distribute food to those refugees. After the Japanese victory and occupation took place, TSZC in its document dated on December 17, and in subsequent documents, consistently recognized this number. Afterwards how did the population of Nanking change? TSZC documents read that in January 1938 the population was 250,000.

(Part4)Lewis S. C. Smythe, professor of Nanking University investigated the population with the help of many Chinese staffs on February 1938. He wrote a report which shows the population of Nanking was 250,000 or 270,000 as of the end of March 1938. The Nanking City Administrative Office of the Nanking Restoration Government, which was established on March 28, 1938, registered 277,000 inhabitants. Japanese soldiers killed 300,000 Chinese people in Nanking city?

中国政府は日本軍が南京市で30万人殺されたと騒いでいる。日本軍の占領後南京の人口は30万人も減少したのであろうか?歴史資料を見てみよう。1937年の12月8日、中国側の司令官Tang Sheng-zhiは南京市の非戦闘員全員を安全避難区へ誘導している。その結果、南京城内には安全避難区以外には人っ子一人いない状態だった。安全避難区委員会のジョンラーベは、南京戦に突入する前である12月10日の日記に、南京の人口は20万人であると書いている。安全避難区委員会は12月17日のドキュメントナンバー9に、こう記している。日本軍が南京市に入城するときには、ほぼ全員の民間人らは安全区に避難していた、と書いているからこの人口数は正しいと判断できる。

南京大虐殺 死体の数

■(Part1) The so-called 'Nanking Massacre' is the case wherein 300,000 people of Nanking city and the captives have been alleged to have been murdered during the six weeks occupation period under the Japanese Army, from December 13 immediately after the fall of Nanking through the beginning of February of 1938. Where 300,000 of dead bodies were? Let's look at the statistics.

(Part2)The Chinese postwar investigation, which has claims Japanese killed 300,000 people in Nanking Massacre, has presented the following two groups of evidences to prove the victims of more than 300,000:
1 Burial records of 150,000 corpses by the Advance Benevolence Society and the Red Swastika Society.
2 Chinese testimonies of the eleven cases to verify the murder of 190,000 people.
In here, let’s look at the number 1 which shows 150,000 corpses.

(Part3)All the activities that the Advance Benevolence Society was involved were provision of clothes, relief of widows, and nurture. Burial was not included. According to Nanking compiled by ICHIKI Yoshimichi (published by Japan Business and Industry Institution, Nanking Office, 1941), the Advance Benevolence Society suspended its activities from December 1937 to August 1938. There existed no proof showing that the Advance Benevolence Society was written in 1946, nine years after the incident.

(Part4)Why has the Chinese presented the Advance Benevolence Society for evidence? No matter what, they wanted the massacre was occurred by the Japanese, so they presented the wrong evidence? What did the Red Swastika Society report? To the Tokyo Trial, a record was submitted that the company buried 42,000 corpses, but the accuracy of its record could be doubtful. A Japanese man whose name was Maruyama testified, "The number of burials per day was at most 200.”

(Part5) Rabe also wrote in his diary dated on Feb 15, "Until now, 200 bodies were buried a day. (The Good Man of Nanking P197) The company was capable of burying an average of 180 a day. About 5,000 were buried in end of February. In March, burials per day increased in number because the Japanese gave extra charge each corpse to workers and 5 trucks, so the number of burials per day increased by from 600 to 800.
(Part6)The same number could be found in the report dated on March 4, addressed to the Foreign Office in Germany by Georg Rosen. At this time, however, a serious issue happened. Having padding the number of buried corpses in order to gain more wages, the Red Swastika Society reported on their activities. As of the end of February, 5,000 were reported, and on March 15, the figure mounted to 31,791.

(Part7)It was calculated that they had buried 26,000 in fifteen days. In other words, 1,700 a day had to be disposed. Japanese soldiers knew the Chinese were lying. However, the Japanese paid money to them because they didn’t want to have any troubles. What was the actual figure of burials? The total number would be from 10,400 to 12,400.

(Part8)This figure could almost coincide with that appeared in The Nanking City government general condition (edited by the Nanking Secret Service) which read that 9,364 were buried in the period of from January 1938 to April. Based on the facts stated so far, the actual burials made by the Red Swastika Society were around 10,000, so that the identify of corpses could be assumed to be the war dead of the Chinese Army.

(Part9)The Battle of Nanking, p.351. Battle of Nanking Editorial Committee estimates that Chinese soldiers were killed in action with 12,366 from December 4 to 12 evening, based on the Nanking Garrison Battle Report. Chinese government presented the Burial records of 150,000 corpses by the Advance Benevolence Society and the Red Swastika Society to the Tokyo Trial. So, can you believe the reports? Where were 300,000 of Chinese civilians’ dead bodies? The Nanking Massacre really occurred?

秋が終わった1937年12月13日から1938年2月までの6週間、日本軍は南京を占領した。この時に30万にも及ぶ中国人を殺害したと非難している、いわゆる南京大虐殺と呼ばれるものだ。ではその30万もの死体はどこにあるのか? 資料をよく見てみよう。

1 慈善団体である崇善堂と紅卍字会が計15万体の死体埋葬
2 19万人殺人を証言する中国側11件の証言


そもそも崇善堂の活動内容は「施料(衣料給与)・救恤(寡婦の救済)・哺嬰(保育)」であり「埋葬」は含まれていなかった。しかも市来義道編『南京』(1941年、南京日本商工会議所発行)によれば、崇善堂は南京陥落の1937年12月から翌年8月まで活動を停止していた。崇善堂が当時、埋葬作業に従事したとする証拠は存在しないのだ。そもそも崇善堂の埋葬表は、事件から9年経った後の1946年に作成されたものであって、1938年当時作成されたものではなかった。中国政府はなぜ崇善堂の活動報告を証拠として出したのだろうか? 嘘をついてでも何とかしたい気持ちから提出したとしか思えない。では、紅卍字会の記録はどうか。
東京裁判には、紅卍字会が「約42,000体」を埋葬したという記録がある。しかしこの資料は非常に疑わしい。日本人の一人、丸山氏は一日の処理数は多くても200体だと述べている。ラーベも2月15日の日記に「今まで毎日200体が埋葬された」と記録している。(「The Good Man of Nanking」197ページ) 一日の埋葬数は200体が限度であった。2月の終わりの資料には5000体が埋葬された。3月に入り、5台のトラックを与え、1体につき賃上げすると、一日600から800体になった。
中国から出ている『南京戦』という本の351ページには、日本と戦闘があった少し前の、12月4日から12日までの間の、中国人兵士死傷者は約12,366人と記載され、その数字と埋葬数はほぼ当てはまるのである。東京裁判で中国政府は、崇善堂と紅卍字会による計15万体の死体埋葬を提出した。これを信じることができるか? 30万もの中国人の死体はどこにあるのか?南京大虐殺は本当に起きたのだろうか?

Here is the burial record presented to the IMTFE (International Military Tribunal for the Far East) by the Red Swastika Society. The statistics show where the corpses were found and buried. Only about 2,800 corpses are found inside Nanking castle (walled city of Nanking), and the rest are recovered outside, which were almost 40,000. There are few corpses of women and children. Where were 300,000 of dead bodies?


■(Part1)One picture shows Japanese troops created the nameless war dead of Chinese soldiers’ resting place in China during the war. In contrast, according to Chinese reports, Chinese authorities did not any attention to dead or wounded soldiers. Before the Japanese Army entered Nanking, there had been many corpses in the city. German correspondent Lily Abegg wrote an account entitled Escape from Nanking.「Our Last Days in China's Capital, as to the aspect on Nov 29, 1937:

(Part2)”Wherever we went, we could see that order was given way to chaos. A train carrying 2,000 wounded soldiers arrived at Nanking Station, but no one paid it any heed. There were no medical soldiers. The wounded soldiers were left there for two days, and during the time, dragged out of the train with corpses. The corpses emitted a horrible stench, polluting the air.” They have appealed these stories must have been committed by the Japanese.


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